User commands and logs
The log with the name
auth.log records authorizations – that is, logons and logoffs on a system since the last time the system was booted (Figure 4). This information can be invaluable in checking patterns of usage and detecting any departures from the norm. Only the root user can view it.
user.log records the logins and logouts for the entire system, as well as any warnings that might indicate potential problems (Figure 5). In other words, this log is often a convenient point for troubleshooting general problems. As you might expect, only root can read this log.
Most commands have two types of options: Unix-like ones that are preceded by a single hyphen and are typically a single letter, and GNU options that are preceded by two hyphens and are usually a complete phrase that describes what they do. You can tell how old many of the user-related commands are by the fact that several of them have no GNU options whatsoever. In other words, when you are administering users, you are really getting down to the foundations of your operating system.
Buy this article as PDF
According to a report, many potential victims of the Heartbleed attack have patched their systems, but few have cleaned up the crime scene to protect themselves from the effects of a previous intrusion.
DARPA and NICTA release the code for the ultra-secure microkernel system used in aerial drones.
Should you trust an online service to store your online passwords?
New B+ board lets you build cool things without the complication of a powered USB hub.
Redmond rushes in to root out alleged malware haven.
New initiative will bring futuristic virtual reality effects to the web surfing experience.
Dyreza malware launches a man-in-the-middle attack that compromises SSL.
New cloud combines worldwide access with local attention to data security.
A first cousin of the recent Heartbleed attack affects EAP-based wireless and peer-to-peer authentication.
FOSS community acts to protect freedom of choice for laptop devices.