The fight for Init Freedom

Distro Walk – Devuan

© Photo by Fuu J on Unsplash

© Photo by Fuu J on Unsplash

Article from Issue 260/2022

Devuan, with its promise of Init Freedom, provides users an alternative to systemd as an init process.

Long-time Linux users may remember a time when Debian was viewed as a collection of anarchists, with radical ideas about voting and decision-making. At times, Debian was even the lone dissenter among distributions about decisions made by the Free Software Foundation. However, over the years, Debian has developed its own hierarchy along the way to becoming the source for some two-thirds of active distributions. Today, the Debian derivative most reminiscent of early Debian is Devuan [1], which forked from Debian in 2014 over how decisions were made and the technical connotations of using systemd. Recently, two Devuan developers – fsmithred, who builds the live images and helps with support, and golinux, the community manager – took the time to recall Devuan's past and why their issues are still relevant today. Because Devuan lacks a formal hierarchy, they emphasize that their remarks are "unofficially official."

In 2014, major Linux distributions were transitioning from SysVinit to systemd as an init process – init being the first process to start on a system and the one that manages other processes. Ubuntu had started using Upstart a decade earlier with little controversy. By contrast, systemd was controversial from its earliest days. To start with, systemd is much more than an init system. Rather, as contributor dasein described on the Debian User Forums, "calling systemd an init system is like calling an automobile a cup holder" [2]. That is, while systemd includes the functions of an init system, dasein said systemd is also "an effort to recreate large portions of existing userspace (including login, job scheduling, and networking, just to name a few) inside a single process traditionally reserved for the sole purpose of starting *nix userspace. (Just in case it isn't clear, there is a huge difference between starting userspace (init) and being userspace (systemd).)"

From this perspective, not only is systemd overkill, but it is a violation of the basic tenet of Unix development that an application does only one thing and does it very well. As Christopher Barry stated in the Linux Kernel Archive, this philosophy is what makes Linux "a collection of simple modular components that could be plugged together at will to do real work" [3] – an operating system that is both flexible and accessible. Just as importantly, a modular structure allows the pieces to be assembled in different ways, so that each distribution can be unique. By contrast, systemd imposes a structure on all Linux systems that reduces variety – which is convenient in some ways, but needlessly limiting in time-honored ways.


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