Enhance and secure your Bash shells
The Bash shell is powerful and infinitely expressive. In this article we describe some tricky techniques you can use to enhance and customize your Bash environment.
Ever stopped and thought about what you're typing several times a day at the command prompt? Many experts prefer the Bash command prompt for its versatility, speed, and convenience. However, users often stick with a small collection of commands without realizing the full range of possibilities available through the very expressive Bash shell. In this article, I will describe a few of my favorite tricks. You might already be using some of these techniques, and some might be new to you; in either case, I hope this article encourages you to explore the advanced capabilities available through Bash.
At the end of a long day's work, I recently found myself staring at the command line and wondering where a certain command originated, namely the
ls command. I wouldn't want to hazard a guess at how many times I run the
ls command everyday.
With those bleary eyes, I realized that I'd been typing this command for more than 20 years with little knowledge about it, other than it essentially meant
list. For something so succinct, the all pervasive
ls command is not only greatly understated but also commonly taken for granted.
According to folklore, the
ls command originates from a project that began in 1964 in Cambridge, Massachusetts called Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service), which, among other things, influenced the architecture of the undisputed heavyweight champion of operating systems, Unix.
ls was included in the original version of Unix from AT&T Bell Labs. On the premise that Unix and its ever-popular relative Linux are based around listing files and working within a current working directory structure, it's clear why the
ls command was developed.
Even the freshest faces among us will know that if you just run the
ls command on its own, it will simply show lists of files and directories. A simple command might be:
# ls /usr/local
As compact and bijou as the
ls command is, it can do much if you become familiar with its many useful command-line options.
A common way of disguising a file, for legitimate reasons, from normal directory listings is to add a dot to the start of the filename. Good old
ls makes light work of revealing those hidden files with the
# ls -a
To glean the extra information found in the
long format output, the following switch works well. Incidentally, this switch is often written simply as
ll within a Bash alias in some Linux distributions to save a little typing time, because it is used so ubiquitously. Long output kindly offers information on users and group permissions; you can try it with:
# ls -l
If you've ever lost a file in a subdirectory and would rather not type a lengthy
find command, the ever-faithful recursive switch usually outputs a screed of information, as it usefully includes subdirectories, too:
# ls -R
My favorite is a combination of showing all files, including those hidden, adding long format for permissions and user details, and also converting file sizes to human-readable format (Figure 1). If you ever forget the switches required, you might think of this command as a tribute to Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey:
# ls -hal
Some, especially older, Linux distributions lack color when outputting information, and with the amount of information and detail that most sys admins need to wade through on a daily basis, color-coding is all but essential in order to work effectively.
One powerful feature of the
ls command, and Bash in general, is that it lets you use simple colors to clarify output. (It is worth mentioning that certain terminals simply aren't designed to display colors, but those with limited functionality tend to be older or part of the hardware's purposely minimal, embedded operating system.)
Among other uses, color schemes let you easily see if you're logged in as the superuser
root or a less privileged user. You can also bring color, at least on some versions, to commands such as the popular
grep command by configuring the appropriate settings in your Bash config file:
As you might already be aware, the Bash config file resides in each user's home directory as the hidden file
.bashrc. If your symlinks, files, and directories are not displaying in different colors, try adding the config file:
alias ls='ls -F --color=auto'
After you've added that line with your favorite editor, again making sure you're inside your home directory (by typing
cd ~ – or even
cd /home/$USER), you then can update your shell with the altered
.bashrc file as follows:
# cd # . .bashrc
Your file and directory listings should now be far easier to read.
Step Away from the Delete Key
Now that you are staring firmly into the powerful but somewhat abyss-like
.bashrc file, I would be remiss not to mention the following lifesavers.
I've come across certain flavors of systems with these options installed by default (usually using the global user config file
/etc/bash.bashrc, which affects all users, but you can usually override the changes to the config from within your
.bashrc file). If you haven't seen these command switches before, try to guess what they force you to do if you use the delete, copy, or move commands (in Unix-like operating systems
mv is also
rename, for all intents and purposes):
alias rm='rm -i' alias cp='cp -i' alias mv='mv -i'
Yes, you're quite right that the preceding
.bashrc entries ensure you'll be prompted before overwriting or manipulating a file. This precaution can save your life; especially if you're typing at a breakneck speed. Bash will force you to pause for reflection before deleting that all-important single copy of a file.
Buy this article as PDF
Bug database has a bug of its own that could allow an intruder to create an unauthorized account.
Report focuses federal resources on achieving universal Internet access.
Leading browser makers say “no” to porous encryption algorithm
Report from the X-Force group says attackers are using TOR to hide their crimes
Future Firefox extensions will be compatible with Chrome.
Better read this if you bought your computer before 2011
Users should upgrade to the new version as soon as possible
Xen project announces a privilege escalation problem for Qemu host systems
Attackers can compromise an Android phone just by sending a text message
PC vendor will pre-install Ubuntu on portables in India.