GCC, Clang, and MSVC compilers with C++

Perfect Match

Article from Issue 207/2018
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Due to the fast pace of updates of the C++ standards, compiler builders have been busy. How do the most popular compilers fit with the standards and what are the differences?

The quiet times are over for C++. A full 13 years passed between the C++98 and C++11 standards, but since then, new standards have appeared every three years, with C++14, C++17, and preliminary work on C++20. The C++ standardization committee already shows signs of enthusiasm for the next cycle.

With so many versions of C++ out in the world (see the "Blessings of Diversity" box), a developer could easily wonder, how do the compiler makers keep up with it all? This article looks at support for C++ standards in three popular compiler alternatives:

  • GCC: The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) [1] is the quintessential free software compiler. Originally created by Richard Stallman in 1987 as the compiler for the GNU project, GCC is now supported by a large community of developers and is found on almost all Linux distributions.
  • Clang: This popular free compiler collection [2] uses the LLVM compiler as a back end. Clang is actually the front-end component. Clang/LLVM is designed for a high degree of compatibility with GCC. The Clang project enjoys the support of several major vendors, including Apple, Google, Microsoft, Intel, and AMD, possibly because they find Clang's permissive free software license easier to integrate with commercial projects than the GPL3 license attached to GCC.
  • MSVC: This compiler is for Microsoft's Visual C++ (MSVC) environment [3]. In the past, Linux support in a major Microsoft development tool would have been unthinkable, but today, versions of MSVC run on Linux, and extensions are available for developing Linux applications on MSVC.

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